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Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016

Index Copernicus 7,16
liczba punktów MNiSW 11 pkt

indeksowana m.in. w SCOPUS, DOAJ, ERIH PLUS


Spis treści


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony: 5-16
DOI:
Z cyklu: Sylwetki psychoterapeutów
„Nie dać się zaszufladkować” — rozmowa z Ryszardem Izdebskim
rozmawiała: Wanda Szaszkiewicz


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony 17-28
DOI
Łukasz Cichocki, Joanna Palka, Julian Leff, Andrzej Cechnicki
Wykorzystanie maski w terapii pacjentów z przewlekłymi halucynacjami słuchowymi
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: The use of masks in the treatment of patients with chronic auditory hallucinations
Streszczenie
Autorzy opisują skuteczną terapeutycznie metodę pracy z 28-letnim pacjentem z przewlekłymi halucynacjami słuchowymi opornymi wobec wcześniejszej farmakoterapiii innych metod leczenia dostępnych w środowiskowym programie i udział w grupie terapeutycznej terapeutycznym ambulatoryjne indywidualne nie prowadziły do remisji objawów. Po interwencji terapeutycznej przy użyciu stworzonej przez pacjenta maski, będącej modyfikacją opisanej przez Juliana Leffa metody awatara, uzyskano znaczącą poprawę stanu pacjenta: radykalne zmniejszenie obecności i uciążliwości halucynacji słuchowych oraz wyraźną poprawę funkcjonowania społecznego.
Summary
Aim: The aim of this article is to describe a useful therapeutic approach in a patient with chronic auditory hallucinations resistant to a previous drug treatment and other forms of treatment available in the community therapeutic programme.
Person and method: The patient, a 28-year-old man, resident of a big city, treated psychiatrically from the age of 16, diagnosed with psychotic disorders from the age of 20. A significant role in his illness history was played by severe, persistent auditory hallucinations associated with the illness for years, causing considerable suffering and acute problems in social functioning. Previous pharmacotherapy with antipsychotic drugs, full and part-time hospitalization, individual outpatient treatment and participation in group therapy did not produce symptom remission.
Results: After the therapeutic intervention using a mask made by the patient which was a modification of the Avatar therapy described by Julian Leff, a significant improvement of the patient’s condition was obtained: a dramatic reduction of auditory hallucinations and their severity and a marked improvement in social functioning.
Conclusions: Cognitive therapy with the use of a mask is a useful method in the treatment of patients with chronic auditory hallucinations, also for those who have experienced trauma. Low cost of this type of intervention compared with the Avatar therapy is an additional advantage.
Key words: schizophrenia, chronic auditory hallucinations, therapy with the use of masks and Avatar


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony: 29-42
DOI:
Anna Bielańska
Monodrama jako specyficzna interwencja w leczeniu halucynacji słuchowych
Monodrama as a specific intervention in treatment of auditory hallucinations
Streszczenie
Autorka na przykładzie opisu trzech procesów terapeutycznych przedstawia zastosowanie monodramy w leczeniu pacjentów doświadczających uporczywych halucynacji. Zwraca uwagę na główne elementy leczące, takie jak: powtarzane ćwiczenia wyrażające protest, refleksja nad relacją do głosów, wspieranie i rozwijanie zasobów pacjenta, specyficzna relacja terapeutyczna.
Summary
Objectives: The author describes the use of psychodrama in individual, short-term psychotherapy with a schizophrenia-diagnosed patient. The aim of these sessions was to reduce auditory hallucinations.
Methods: Psychodrama transfers internal conflicts, symptoms and problems to the stage, into a space of ‘surplus reality’. This paper includes stories of three patients and descriptions of their monodrama sessions, where they were working with auditory hallucinations. On the stage the patients fought with their hallucinations and tried to find their resources and possibilities. They have been under pharmacological care throughout the whole therapy.
Results: After ten sessions, which took place every two weeks, their symptoms reduced significantly; the voices, which had been heard every day, started appearing only from time to time. The patients experienced the voices’ gradual loss of authority over them. The voices lost their omnipotence and omniscience. Half a year later the reduction of auditory hallucinations was maintained.
Conclusions: Monodrama as a method of therapy for auditory hallucinations seems to prove an effective tool to obtain significant improvem


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony: 43-57
DOI:
Małgorzata Kowalcze
Psychodrama w superwizji klinicznej
Psychodrama in clinical supervison
Streszczenie
Autorka, mając długoletnie doświadczenie w prowadzeniu
superwizji grupowych dla terapeutów uzależnień i psychoterapeutów, reflektuje trudności w pracy superwizorskiej i specyfikę superwizji prowadzonej z wykorzystaniem psychodramy.
Summary
I have a long-term professional experience in conducting individual and group supervision for two professional groups: addiction therapists and psychotherapists. In this thesis I concentrate on the possibilities of applying the method of psychodrama in supervision. In my professional practice I often wonder in what way I should conduct the supervision so that supervised therapist’s dependent attitudes are not being strengthened, how I should provide them with information in order not to judge in an excessive manner.Such a
method has appeared to be psychodrama. According to the assumptions of psychodrama, supervision stimulates a psychotherapist’s professional development, his/her creativity, authenticity, being beneficial for his/her patients at the same time; it should carry a fresh viewpoint on the practice and a new viewpoint on the therapeutic relationship. Supervision with the use of psychodrama does not lean only on its application in pure form. In the supervisory process also elements of psychoanalysis become integrated theories of family systems, cognitive-bahavioral theories and humanistic approach. On the part of a supervisor it involves knowledge, flexibility and creativity as well as engagement in the process itself. Similarly to psychodrama, in supervision, the main value is a safe and confidential atmosphere. A supervisor needs to ensure that a person who takes the material from their work with a patient can fearlessly reveal their work, making constructive changes and hold a new different view of a therapeutic relationship.
Key words: psychodrama, clinical supervision


Psychoterapia 1 (172) 2016
strony: 59-75
DOI:
Barbara Józefik, Krzysztof Szwajca, Marta Agata Szwajca
Problem granic w procesie superwizyjnym
FREE ENGLISH FULLTEXT: The issue of borders in the supervision process
Streszczenie
W artykule przedstawiony jest zapis dyskusji, jaka się odbyła w ramach Konferencji Superwizorów dnia 4 października 2013 roku w Bochni pomiędzy superwizorami, pracującymi według różnych podejść terapeutycznych. W dyskusji udział wzięli: Barbara Józefik, Krzysztof Rutkowski, Jarosław Gliszczyński, Zofia Milska-Wrzosińska, Bogdan de Barbaro, Zofia Pierzchała, Magdalena Sariusz-Skąpska, Krzysztof Szwajca. Podczas dyskusji oraz w komentarzu do niej omawiana jest istota relacji superwizyjnej i jej granice, oddzielające ją od relacji terapeutycznej, rozważana jest możliwość i zasadność działań terapeutycznych superwizora wobec superwizowanego terapeuty.
Summary
The article presents a discussion of supervisors, representatives of various theoretical perspectives that took place within the Supervisor Conference on October 4th 2013 in Bochnia. The point of consideration were various depictions of the supervisory relationship, with particular emphasis on the issue of boundaries between supervision and supervisee’s therapy. Supervision is one of the basic forms of teaching psychotherapy, and the most personal. Its axis is the relationship between the supervisee and the supervisor. The intensity of this process, with a high level of mutual exposure and its emotional nature, with the inevitable asymmetries and inequalities, makes this relationship complex and unique. The feelings experienced by the supervisee in the process of therapy are a response to what the patient brings, but also contains the psychotherapist’s personal experience. Clarifying what is personal and what is relational, which is an important objective of supervision, can reveal very private, intimate issues. Hence the substantial question: how to maintain the proper boundary between what should be subject of reflection in light of the supervison and what is appropriate for the psychotherapeutic relationship? The question was answered in a panel discussion involving supervisors, representatives of the main psychotherapeutic approaches. In a multithreaded, personal discussion panelists spoke in favor of clear boundaries and their impermeability, or in favor for impenetrability as one of the variants, and not of any particular value. There was also talk of interactivity and processuality of supervision, it’s accountability, the need for awareness and self-restraint of the supervisor.
Key words: supervision, supervisor-supervisee relationship, borders on supervisors-supervisee relationship


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony: 77-86
DOI:
Błażej Wojdała
Sytuacja pacjenta jako sytuacja graniczna
Patient’s situation as a limit situation
Streszczenie
Artykuł zawiera rozważania na temat sytuacji egzystencjalnej, jaką jest przyjęcie roli pacjenta. Konsekwencje tego rodzaju doświadczeń przeanalizowano z perspektywy myśli Karla Jaspersa, w odniesieniu do praktyki psychoterapeutycznej, w zakresie której szczególne znaczenie nadano dylematowi terapeuty między interweniowaniem a towarzyszeniem pacjentowi w cierpieniu.
Summary
Objectives. The aim of the article is to examine, if the ‘limit situation’ category, expressed by Karl Jaspers, aptly describes the situation of a patient, who seeks psychological help. According to Jaspers, suffering has two facets, it might be considered as a possible situation or as a limit situation. It is being avoided as far as it is possible, but eventually it is recognized as an unwanted but inevitable experience.
Methods. In the article, the patient’s situation is considered in terms of suffering. There is an ambiguity of this experience which is discussed.
Results. Contrary to the conventional meaning, that emphasizes its aspect of being unwanted, suffering could be seen as an experience, which contributes to brighten the existence. Hence, a psychotherapist’s role includes a kind of dualism, which depends on his or her attitude towards the patient’s suffering. Indeed, a patient’s suffering might be rejected or accepted.
Conclusions. Reflection on a patient’s situation as a limit situation leads to the conclusion that the process of providing psychological help is defined by two dimensions: the therapeutist’s role is to intervene and to attend. To attentively respond to the patient’s suffering, a therapist must engage both in action against suffering and in non-action, which means in accompanying someone who suffers.
Key words: Jaspers, limit situation, suffering


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony: 87-102
DOI:
Paweł Brudek, Stanisława Steuden
Style radzenia sobie ze stresem, samoocena i nadzieja na sukces u osób w okresie późnej dorosłości o odmiennej specyfice bilansu życiowego
Stress coping styles, self-esteem and hope for success of people in late adulthood and of different specificity of life review
Streszczenie
W artykule przedstawione są wyniki przeprowadzonych przez Autorów badań, których celem było sprawdzenie zależności pomiędzy specyfiką bilansu życia osób w okresie późnej dorosłości (w wieku 65–70 lat) a radzeniem sobie ze stresem starości, samooceną i poziomem nadziei na sukces. Stosowane metody badawcze to: Inwentarz Radzenia Sobie w Sytuacjach Stresowych (CISS); Skala Samooceny (SES); Kwestionariusz Nadziei na Sukces (KNS); Kwestionariusz Bilansu Życiowego. Autorzy opracowali projekt wykorzystania rezultatów badań do oddziaływań pomocowych o charakterze psychologicznym. W artykule zwrócono uwagę również na ograniczenia przeprowadzonych badań, a uzyskane wyniki poddano krytycznej analizie.
Summary
The aim of research. The results of the research done by the Authors were presented in this article. People (N = 120) in late adulthood (60-75 years old) who differ in global estimation of their hitherto lives took part in the research. Its primary goal was to identify the differences between four groups of seniors with various specificity of life review in the range of coping with old age stress, self-esteem and the level of hope for success.
Methods. Four psychological methods were applied in the discussed project, such as: (1) Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); (2) Self-Esteem Scale (SES); (3) State Hope Scale (KNS): (4) Life Review Questionnaire (LRQ) created by Izdebski and Polak.
Results. Subjects interviewed with various life reviews differed between each other when it came to choose stress coping styles and hope for success, both on the level of general index and its two dimensions. No statistically significant differences in the range of self-esteem were stated. The presented differences referred mainly to people with a totally different life review. Individuals with a very positive life review had less emotional or evasive attitudes towards the problem than those estimating their hitherto life in a very negative way. They had also a stronger belief in positive achievement of their goals.
Conclusions. If elderly people have a positive life review, they are more likely to adapt in stressful situations connected with age specificity. The findings obtained in the research may present a significant back-up for psychologists and therapists while defining ways of therapeutic actions taken towards elderly people having problems with overall and adequate life review estimation.
Key words: coping with stress, hope for success, life review


Psychoterapia 1 (176) 2016
strony: 103-110
DOI:
Cezary Żechowski
Historia jako źródło (nieświadomych) cierpień
History and its (unconscious) discontents
Streszczenie
Autor podejmuje rozważania na temat rozumianych psychoanalitycznie sposobów psychicznego opracowywania katastrof społecznych, przechowywanych w pamięci indywidualnej i zbiorowej. Szerzej odnosi się do przemyśleń J. Puget, dotyczących wpływu kontekstu historycznego, w którym funkcjonuje i pacjent, i analityk, na przebieg psychoterapii psychoanalitycznej.
Summary
The experiences from 1939-1950 had a significant impact on mental functioning of the society, families and individuals. Traumatic and confusion of roles between victims, witnesses and the beneficiary hampered the formation of critical and reflective narrative concerning this period. Construction of inclusive narrative extended to repressed elements of history and experiences is an opportunity to weaken denials, the primary defenses and alienation. These narratives would strengthen part of the reflective and self-conscious of individuals and social groups. This task belongs primarily to historians, reporters, journalists, anthropologists and philosophers, but it can also be an area of reflection of psychotherapists who every day come in contact with the history and reality of the suffering of individuals and families. The ethical aspect of this issue can be summed up in the question: can we refuse ourselves’ and patients’ investigations of the stories and memories that have been largely repressed in the society? We can also wonder how macrohistoric processes affect microhistories affected — in global terms (bleedingland), but also in individual terms, which is always very personal, intimate, connected with the family of origin, and in our own beginning. The study of this beginning makes sense because it allows us to understand the unconscious aspects of suffering, envy, anger, anxiety and guilt that have become part of intergenerational transmissions.
Key words: trauma, history, psychoanalysis





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